Indian Constitution Day also known as “National Law Day” , is celebrated in India on 26 November every year to commemorate the adoption of the Constitution of India. On 26 November 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted to the Constitution of India, and it came into effect on 26 January 1950.
The Government of India declared 26 November as Constitution Day on 19 November 2015 by a gazette notification. The Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi made the declaration on 11 October 2015 while laying the foundation stone of the B. R. Ambedkar’s Statue of Equality memorial in Mumbai. The year of 2021 was the 131st birth anniversary of Ambedkar, who had chaired the drafting committee of the Constituent Assembly and played a pivotal role in the drafting of the constitution. Previously this day was celebrated as Law Day. 26 November was chosen to spread the importance of the constitution and to spread thoughts and ideas of Ambedkar. PM Modi Speech On National Law Day 2021, 26 November, and also The President , Vice President and Lok Sabha Speaker also addressed the program.
Background of indian constitution
Since 2015 was the 125th birth anniversary year of B. R. Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), who is known as the father of the Indian constitution, the government decided in May 2015 to celebrate this year “in a big way”. A special committee chaired by Prime Minister of India was announced for year-long celebrations. Various programmes will be held by various ministries and departments throughout the year to spread thoughts and ideas of Ambedkar.
As part of the celebrations while laying foundation stone for an Ambedkar memorial at the Indu Mills compounds in Mumbai in October 2015, the Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi announced that 26 November will be celebrated as “Constitution Day”. In November 2015, the government officially announced celebration of the day
The Constitution of India (IAST: Bhāratīya Saṃvidhāna) is the supreme law of India. The document lays down the framework that demarcates fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written national constitution in the world.
It imparts constitutional supremacy (not parliamentary supremacy, since it was created by a constituent assembly rather than Parliament) and was adopted by its people with a declaration in its preamble. Parliament cannot override the constitution.
Timeline of formation of the INDIAN CONSTITTION
6 December 1946: Formation of the Constitution Assembly (in accordance with French practice).
9 December 1946: The first meeting was held in the constitution hall (now the Central Hall of Parliament House). The 1st person to address was J. B. Kripalani, Sachchidananda Sinha became temporary president. (Demanding a separate state, the Muslim League boycotted the meeting.)
11 December 1946: The Assembly appointed Rajendra Prasad as its president, H. C. Mukherjee as its vice-chairman and B. N. Rau as constitutional legal adviser. (There were initially 389 members in total, which declined to 299 after partition. Out of the 389 members, 292 were from government provinces, four from chief commissioner provinces and 93 from princely states.)
13 December 1946: An “Objective Resolution” was presented by Jawaharlal Nehru, laying down the underlying principles of the constitution. This later became the Preamble of the Constitution.
22 January 1947: Objective resolution unanimously adopted.
22 July 1947: National flag adopted.
15 August 1947: Achieved independence. India split into the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
29 August 1947: Drafting Committee appointed with B. R. Ambedkar as its Chairman.The other six members of committee were Munshi, Muhammed Sadulla, Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar, Khaitan and Mitter.
16 July 1948: Along with Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, V. T. Krishnamachari was also elected as second vice-president of Constituent Assembly.
26 November 1949: The Constitution of India was passed and adopted by the assembly.
24 January 1950: Last meeting of Constituent Assembly. The Constitution was signed and accepted (with 395 Articles, 8 Schedules, and 22 Parts).
26 January 1950: The Constitution came into force. (The process took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days—at a total expenditure of ₹6.4 million to finish.)
G. V. Mavlankar was the first Speaker of the Lok Sabha (the lower house of Parliament) after India turned into a republic.
Structure of indian constitution
The Indian constitution is the world’s longest for a sovereign nation. At its enactment, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. At about 145,000 words, it is the second-longest active constitution—after the Constitution of Alabama—in the world.
The constitution has a preamble and 470 articles, which are grouped into 25 parts. With 12 schedules and five appendices, it has been amended 105 times; the latest amendment became effective on 10 August 2021.
The constitution’s articles are grouped into the following parts:
- Preamble, with the words “socialist”, “secular” and ‘integrity’ added in 1976 by the 42nd amendment
- Part I – The Union and its Territory – Articles 1 to 4
- Part II – Citizenship – Articles 5 to 11
- Part III – Fundamental Rights – Articles 12 to 35
- Part IV – Directive Principles of State Policy – Articles 36 to 51
- Part IVA – Fundamental Duties – Article 51A
- Part V – The Union – Articles 52 to 151
- Part VI – The States – Articles 152 to 237
- Part VII – States in the B part of the first schedule (repealed) – Article 238
- Part VIII – Union Territories – Articles 239 to 242
- Part IX – Panchayats – Articles 243 to 243(O)
- Part IXA – Municipalities – Articles 243(P) to 243(ZG)
- Part IXB – Co-operative societies – Articles 243(ZH) to 243(ZT)
- Part X – Scheduled and tribal areas – Articles 244 to 244A
- Part XI – Relations between the Union and the States – Articles 245 to 263
- Part XII – Finance, property, contracts and suits – Articles 264 to 300A
- Part XIII – Trade and commerce within India – Articles 301 to 307
- Part XIV – Services under the union and states – Articles 308 to 323
- Part XIVA – Tribunals – Articles 323A to 323B
- Part XV – Elections – Articles 324 to 329A
- Part XVI – Special provisions relating to certain classes – Articles 330 to 342
- Part XVII – Languages – Articles 343 to 351
- Part XVIII – Emergency provisions – Articles 352 to 360
- Part XIX – Miscellaneous – Articles 361 to 367
- Part XX – Amendment of the Constitution – Articles 368
- Part XXI – Temporary, transitional and special provisions – Articles 369 to 392
- Part XXII – Short title, date of commencement, authoritative text in Hindi and repeals – Articles 393 to 395
Schedules of indian constitution
Schedules are lists in the constitution which categorise and tabulate bureaucratic activity and government policy.
|First||1 and 4||Lists India’s states and territories, changes in their borders and the laws used to make that change.|
|Second||59(3), 65(3), 75(6), 97, 125, 148(3), 158(3), 164(5), 186 and 221||Lists the salaries of public officials, judges, and the comptroller and auditor general.|
|Third||75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and 219||Forms of oaths – Lists the oaths of office for elected officials and judges|
|Fourth||4(1) and 80(2)||Details the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha (upper house of Parliament) by state or union territory.|
|Fifth||244(1)||Provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes (areas and tribes requiring special protection).|
|Sixth||244(2) and 275(1)||Provisions made for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram.|
|Seventh||246||Central government, state, and concurrent lists of responsibilities|
|Eighth||344(1) and 351||Official languages|
|Ninth||31-B||Validation of certain acts and regulations.|
|Tenth||102(2) and 191(2)||Anti-defection provisions for members of Parliament and state legislatures.|
|Eleventh||243-G||Panchayat Raj (rural local government)|
|Twelfth||243-W||Municipalities (urban local government)|